Lancaster is a town in Coos County, New Hampshire, United States, on the Connecticut River. The town is named after the city of Lancaster in England. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 3,507, the second largest in the county after Berlin. It is the county seat of Coos County and gateway to the Great North Woods Region. Lancaster, which includes the villages of Grange and South Lancaster, is home to Weeks State Park and the Lancaster Fair. Part of the White Mountain National Forest is in the eastern portion. The town is part of the Berlin, NH−VT Micropolitan Statistical Area.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 50.7 square miles (131 km), of which 49.8 square miles (129 km) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km) is water, comprising 1.73% of the town.
Lancaster is drained by the Israel River, and is fully within the Connecticut River watershed. The town also includes Martin Meadow Pond. The town’s highest point is located on a western spur of Mount Cabot at 3,290 feet (1,000 m) above sea level.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,507 people, 1,399 households, and 880 families residing in the town. The population density was 70.4 people per square mile (27.2/km²). There were 1,687 housing units at an average density of 33.9 units/sq mi (13.1 units/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.8% White, 0.3% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.03% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.4% some other race, and 1.1% from two or more races. 1.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,399 households, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were headed by married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.1% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.1% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35, and the average family size was 2.85.
In the town, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 20.2% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, and 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males.
For the period 2007-11, the estimated median annual income for a household in the town was $40,455, and the median income for a family was $53,542. Male full-time workers had a median income of $48,438 versus $30,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,245. 13.0% of the population and 10.4% of families were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of people under the age of 18 and 19.2% age 65 or older.